antisocial personality disorder
antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is described by the american psychiatric association’s diagnostic and statistical manual, fourth edition (DSM-IV-TR), as an axis II personality disorder (dramatic), characterized by “…a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood.” please note that ASPD and psychopathy are not synonyms. psychopathy and its synonym, sociopathy, are terms related to ASPD. ASPD replaced psychopathy as a diagnosis in the DSM but the terms are not identical. psychopathy is now usually seen as a subset of ASPD.
the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM IV-TR), defines antisocial personality disorder (in axis II cluster b) as:
- A) there is a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age fifteen, as indicated by three or more of the following:
- failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviours as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest;
- deception, as indicated by repeatedly lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure;
- impulsiveness or failure to plan ahead;
- irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults;
- reckless disregard for safety of self or others;
- consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behaviour or honour financial obligations;
- lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalising having hurt, mustreated, or stolen from another;
- B) the individual is at least age eighteen.
- C) there is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before age fifteen.
- D) the occurrence of antisocial behaviour is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or a manic episode.
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS - the following conditions commonly coexist with antisocial personality disorder:
- anxiety disorders
- depressive disorder
- substance-related disorders
- somatization disorder
- borderline personality disorder
- histrionic personality disorder
- narcissistic personality disorder
- sadistic personality disorder
PSYCHOPATHY - antisocial personality disorder is diagnosed via behaviourand social deviant behaviours, whereas a diagnosis of psychopathy also includes affective and interpersonal personality factors. robert d. hare writes that there are also differences between psychopaths and others on “processing and use of linguistic and emotional information” (how a person speaks, and deals with their own emotions, as well as the emotions of others), while such differences are small between those diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder and not.